The dopant type and amount governs the electrochemical performance of graphene platforms for the antioxidant activity quantification
Graphene doped with heteroatoms can show new or improved properties as compared to the original undoped material. It has been reported that the type of heteroatoms and the doping conditions can have a strong influence on the electronic and electrochemical properties of the resulting material. Here, we wish to compare the electrochemical behavior of two n-type and two p-type doped graphenes, namely boron-doped graphenes and nitrogen-doped graphenes containing different amounts of heteroatoms. We show that the boron-doped graphene containing a higher amount of dopants provides the best electroanalytical performance in terms of calibration sensitivity, selectivity and linearity of response for the detection of gallic acid normally used as the standard probe for the quantification of antioxidant activity of food and beverages. Our findings demonstrate that the type and amount of heteroatoms used for the doping have a profound influence on the electrochemical detection of gallic acid rather than the structural properties of the materials such as amounts of defects, oxygen functionalities and surface area. This finding has a profound influence on the application of doped graphenes in the field of analytical chemistry.