Two-Dimensional Materials on the Rocks: Positive and Negative Role of Dopants and Impurities in Electrochemistry
- Shu Min Tan, Martin Pumera*
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and transition-metal chalcogenides, were shown in many works as very potent catalysts for industrially important electrochemical reactions, such as oxygen reduction, hydrogen and oxygen evolution, and carbon dioxide reduction. We critically discuss here the development in the field, showing that not only dopants but also impurities can have dramatic effects on catalysis. Note here that the difference between dopant and impurity is merely semantic-dopant is an impurity deliberately added to the material. We contest the general belief that all doping has a positive effect on electrocatalysis. We show that in many cases, dopants actually inhibit the electrochemistry of 2D materials. This review provides a balanced view of the field of 2D materials electrocatalysis.
2H and 2H/1T-Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Films Prepared via Powderless Gas Deposition for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
Catalytic hydrogen evolution reaction on “metal-free” graphene: key role of metallic impurities