Three-dimensionally printed electrochemical systems for biomedical analytical applications
Additive manufacturing (3D-printing) has revolutionized many areas of the manufacturing. Three-dimensional printing offers enormous potential to biomedical devices, including electroanalytical systems. The motivation for 3D printing is rapid prototyping and decentralized customizable fabrication of bioanalytical systems in the diverse and remote areas of the globe. We overview the recent trends and discuss the fabrication and applications of 3D printed polymer/carbon and metal electrodes and whole electrochemical systems for biomedical applications and DNA detection. We show that sky is the limit and envision whole analytical systems, including electronics, to be 3D printed in the future for diagnostics in the remote areas of the globe.