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ACS Nano 2013, 7(6), 5262-5272

Sulfur-Doped Graphene via Thermal Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in H2S, SO2, or CS2 Gas

Doping of graphene with heteroatoms is an effective way to tailor its properties. Here we describe a simple and scalable method of doping graphene lattice with sulfur atoms during the thermal exfoliation process of graphite oxides. The graphite oxides were first prepared by Staudenmaler, Hofmann, and Hummers methods followed by treatments in hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, or carbon disulfide. The doped materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis, and Raman spectroscopy. The zeta-potential and conductivity of sulfur-doped graphenes were also investigated in this paper. It was found that the level of doping is more dramatically Influenced by the type of graphite oxide used rather than the type of sulfur-containing gas used during exfoliation. Resulting sulfur-doped graphenes act as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

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