Searching for Magnetism in Hydrogenated Graphene: Using Highly Hydrogenated Graphene Prepared via Birch Reduction of Graphite Oxides
- Alex Yong Sheng Eng, Hwee Ling Poh, Filip Sanek, Miroslav Marysko, Stanislava Matejkova, Zdeněk Sofer, Martin Pumera*
Fully hydrogenated graphene (graphane) and partially hydrogenated graphene materials are expected to possess various fundamentally different properties from graphene. We have prepared highly hydrogenated graphene containing 5% wt of hydrogen via Birch reduction of graphite oxide using elemental sodium in liquid NH3 as electron donor and methanol as proton donor in the reduction. We also investigate the influence of preparation method of graphite oxide, such as the Stauderumaier, Hofmann or Hummers methods on the hydrogenation rate. A control experiment involving NaNH2 instead of elemental Na was also performed. The materials were characterized in detail by electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy both at room and low temperatures, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, combustible elemental analysis and electrical resistivity measurements. Magnetic measurement are provided of bulk quantities of highly hydrogenated grapheme. In the whole temperature range up to room temperature, the hydrogenated graphene exhibits a weak ferromagnetism in addition to a contribution proportional to field that is caused not only by diamagnetism but also Rely by an antiferromagnetic influence. The origin of the magnetism is also determined to arise from the hydrogenated graphene itself, and not as a result of any metallic impurities.
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