Phosphorus and Halogen Co-Doped Graphene Materials and their Electrochemistry
- Lu Wang, Zdeněk Sofer, Radek Zboril, Klara Cepe, Martin Pumera*
Doping of graphene materials with heteroatoms is important as it can change their electronic and electrochemical properties. Here, graphene is co-doped with n-type dopants such as phosphorus and halogen (Cl, Br, I). Phosphorus and halogen are introduced through the treatment of graphene oxide with PX3 gas (PCl3, PBr3, and PI3). Graphene oxides are prepared through chlorate and permanganate routes. Detailed chemical and structural characterization demonstrates that the graphene sheets are covered homogeneously by phosphorus and halogen atoms. It is found that the amount of phosphorus and halogen introduced depends on the graphene oxide preparation method. The electrocatalytic effect of the resulting co-doped materials is demonstrated for industrially relevant electrochemical reactions such as the hydrogen evolution and oxygen reduction reactions.