Oxygen-Free Highly Conductive Graphene Papers
Graphene papers have a potential to overcome the gap from nanoscale graphene to real macroscale applications of graphene. A unique process for preparation of highly conductive graphene thin paper by means of Ar+ ion irradiation of graphene oxide (GO) papers, with carbon/oxygen ratio reduced to 100: 1, is presented. The composition of graphene paper in terms of carbon/oxygen ratio and in terms of types of individual oxygen-containing groups is monitored throughout the process. Angle-resolved high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy helps to investigate the depth profile of carbon and oxygen within reduced GO paper. C/O ratios over 100 on the surface and 40 in bulk material are observed. In order to bring insight to the processes of oxygen removal from GO paper by low energy Ar+ ion bombardment, the gases released during the irradiation are analyzed by mass spectroscopy. It is proven that Ar+ ion beam can be applied as a technique for fabrication of highly reduced graphene papers with high conductivities. Such highly conductive graphene papers have great potential to be used in application for construction of microelectronic and sensor devices.