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Biosensors and Bioelectronics 2020, 155(), 112114

Niobium-doped TiS2:Formation of TiS3 nanobelts and their effects in enzymatic biosensors

There is an assortment of layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), about 40 reported compounds, each with its unique polymorph and properties. Group 4 TMD, titanium disulfide (TiS2), possess high electronic conductivity and light weight amongst other attractive features. In consideration for electrochemical and thermoelectrical applications, doping is a promising approach to enhance its practicability. The introduction of foreign atoms or compositional variance may improve existing properties or grant access to new ones. Moving away from the more intensively studied and successfully doped group 6 MoS2 and WS2, TiS2 is doped with varying levels of niobium (Nb) via controlled heating of stoichiometric amounts to yield Ti1-xNbxS2 where x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.2. Structural effects are discussed together with two doping parameters, nature and concentration of dopant. Characterisation data reveal retention of 1T-phase polymorph despite formation of TiS3 nanobelts upon doping. Fundamental electrochemical properties such as heterogenous electron transfer rates and its charge transfer resistance are compared amongst the materials of interest. A selective and sensitive 2nd generation electrochemical biosensor is prepared using Ti0.95Nb0.05S2/GOx/GTA since it is the most superior material in glucose detection.

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