Multifunctional and self-propelled spherical Janus nano/micromotors: recent advances
Recent progress in autonomous self-propelled multifunctional Janus nano/micromotors, which are able to convert chemical or light energy into mechanical motion, is presented. This technology of moving micro- and nanodevices is at the forefront of materials research and is a promising and growing technology with the possibility of using these motors in both biomedical and environmental applications. The development of novel multifunctional Janus motors together with their motion mechanisms is discussed. Different preparation and synthesis routes are compared. The effects of the size, interfacial structures and porosity on the directional motion and the speed of Janus micromotors are discussed. For light-derived Janus micromotors, newly developed techniques that are able to observe directly the interfaces' charge distribution on a nanometer scale are presented in order to clarify the underlying electrophoresis motion mechanism. This review aims to encourage further research in the field of micromotors using new and facile methodologies for obtaining novel Janus motors with enhanced motion and activity.