Intrinsic electrochemical performance and precise control of surface porosity of graphene-modified electrodes using the drop-casting technique
- Alex Yong Sheng Eng, Chun Kiang Chua, Martin Pumera*
Graphenes have for a long time been shown to exhibit enhanced electrochemical sensing and fast heterogeneous electron transfers, but the nature of such improved electrochemistry is disputed due to its inherent porosity. Adsorption and thin layer effects may additionally contribute to the observed behaviour. Furthermore, overall extents of the impact from these factors are typically unclear. Towards a practical solution to this issue, we show that electrode porosity can be adequately controlled close to the case of an ideal planar electrode. With increased mass loadings, the apparent porosity can still be precisely controlled by performing multiple drop-casts from less concentrated dispersions. Thus with application of such experimental practices, the drop-casting technique remains a reliable option for nanomaterial electrode preparation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.