Graphene in biosensing
Biosensing is paramount for improving the quality of human life. Biosensors and biosensing protocols are able to detect a wide range of compounds, sensitively and selectively, with applications in security, health care for point-of-care analyses of diseases, and environmental safety. Here, we describe biosensors and biosensing systems employing graphene. Graphene is a zero-gap semiconductor material, which is electroactive and transparent. Because of its interesting properties, graphene has found its way into a wide variety of biosensing schemes. It has been used as a transducer in bio-field-effect transistors, electrochemical biosensors, impedance biosensors, electrochemiluminescence, and fluorescence biosensors, as well as biomolecular labels. In our review, we describe the application of graphene for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. We compare different techniques and present our views on the future development of the field.