Cytotoxicity of Exfoliated Layered Vanadium Dichalcogenides
- Naziah Mohamad Latiff, Zdeněk Sofer, Adrian C. Fisher, Martin Pumera*
Transition-metal Group 5 vanadium dichalcogenides have shown promising properties for many applications, such as batteries, capacitors, electrocatalysts for hydrogen production and many more. However, their toxicological effects have not yet been well understood. Here, we studied the cytotoxicity of exfoliated VS2, VSe2 and VTe2 by incubating various concentrations of the materials with human lung carcinoma (A549) cells for 24 h and measuring the remaining cell viabilities after the treatment. We found that these vanadium dichalcogenides are relatively more toxic compared to Group 6 transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), namely MoS2, WS2 and WSe2. This study is important for a better understanding of the toxicity of TMDs in preparation for their actual commercialisation in the future.
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