Contactless conductivity detection for microfluidics: Designs and applications
- Martin Pumera*
Different methods for construction of contactless conductivity detectors (CCD) for microchip electrophoresis device are described in this review. This includes three main schemes of CCD for microchips, such as (i) the detection electrodes are placed along the microchannel from outside of the microchip and they are insulated from the channel by the cover lid of microchip device; (ii) the electrodes are placed across of the microchannel in the same plane and they are insulated by thin separation channel walls and (iii) electrodes are buried in widened part of microchannel and they are insulated from solution by ultrathin layer of silicon carbide. Specific issues related to the CCD on microfluidics are discussed, such as an influence of shape and magnitude of ac voltage and placement of electrodes and their insulation. Various applications for security, pharmacological, bioassays and food analysis purposes are described. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Proteinase- sculptured 3D-printed graphene/polylactic acid electrodes as potential biosensing platforms: towards enzymatic modeling of 3D-printed structures dagger
Flexible Pt/Graphene Foil Containing only 6.6 wt % of Pt has a Comparable Hydrogen Evolution Reaction Performance to Platinum Metal