Boron-Doped Graphene: Scalable and Tunable p-Type Carrier Concentration Doping
Precisely engineered changes in Fermi levels of graphene-based materials are of high importance for their applications in electronic and electrochemical devices. Such applications include photoelectrochemical reactions or enhanced electrochemical performance toward reduction of oxygen. Here we describe a method for scalable and tunable boron doping of graphene via thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide in BF3 atmosphere at different temperatures. The temperature and atmospheric composition during exfoliation influences the kinetics of decomposition of the reactants and levels of doping, which range from 23 to 590 ppm. The resulting materials were characterized by prompt gamma-ray analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Recent claims on enhanced catalytic properties of boron-doped graphenes toward the reduction of oxygen were addressed, as well as similar claims on enhanced capacitance.